托福独立写作技巧总结

参考资料:新东方《托福高分范文大全》

〇、题型分类

三类:1. Agree or disagree 2. which do you prefer 3. 三选一

一 、解题步骤

1. 审题并确定立场

认真阅读题目, 根据主题内容, 迅速确定自己的立场。 一般有三种立场可以选择: ①同意; ②不同意; ③妥协中立。 注意: 尽量选择自己在写作此类题目时最易发挥的立场。

个人建议使用单一立场:即同意/不同意,不要使用妥协中立。

2. 确定分论点,搭建文章结构框架

托福作文的惯用结构为: 开头段+主体段+结尾段。 主体段通常由三个段落组成, 每段围绕一个中心论点展开论述。 主题句通常为段落首句。 迅速列出各分论点, 作为各个段落的主题句, 形成文章结构主框架。 例如:①First of all, there is no denying that paying a visit to a museum teaches people a great deal about a nation’s past. ②Secondly, visiting museums can also supply people with ample knowledge about the present magnificence of a country. ③As a matter of fact, in addition to museum visits, there are also other ways to learn about a country.

3. 详细展开论证

(1) 开头段

开头段写法:

个人常用模板如下(举例):

Eg1. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Advertising is the main cause of unhealthy eating habits?

(1, Give background information related to the topic)Nowadays, advertisement is becoming more and more common in our daily life, and at the same time, an increasingly number of people  develop unhealthy eating habits.(2, State the controversial view, and explain the view) Therefore, some people holds the view firmly that it is advertisement that attributes to the bad diet behaviors, they have their own reasons to justify their standpoint, for example, they believe that too much exposure to advertisement makes people hard to control themselves to buy foods when they are hungry. (3, State the irrationality of the controversial view)However, they ignore the fact that origin of a problem tend to be complex, and it is unreasonable to blame advertisement as main reason. (4, State the own opinion)For me, I am fully convinced that the advertising is not the main course of bad eating habits.

四段式:说背景,说反方观点,点出反方观点不合理性,说自己观点。其中说背景有多种选择,如paraphrase the statement into a question, cite sayings from famous people/book, tell own story等。

Eg2. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? People should live in a city or a country all their lives instead of moving to another place.

(1, Give background information related to the topic)Compared with ten years ago, it is more convenient for people now to move from one place to another. High speed trains and airplanes connect every corner of the world within hours, and SNS such as Facebook and WeChat eliminate our worries that we may lose contacts with families and friends after moving to new places. (2, State the controversial view, and explain the view) Faced with this trend, some people still holds the opinion firmly that it is unwise to move to a new place, they have their own reasons to justify their standpoint, for example, they think moving to new places is not good for continuous career development. (3, State the irrationality of the controversial view)However, they ignore a wider range of benefits brought by moving to new places. (4, State the own opinion) For me, I am fully convinced that it is a wise idea to move to somewhere new instead of staying in one place for the whole life.

 

Eg3. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Children should begin learning a foreign language as soon as they start school. 

(1, Give background information related to the topic)With the globalization proceeding forward, learning a foreign language is becoming more and more important because it will greatly enhance one’s competence in job market and worldwide communication. (2, State the controversial view, and explain the view)Therefore, some parents choose to let their children learn foreign language as soon as they start school, they have their own reason to justify their standpoint, for example, they believe that by doing so their children can handle foreign language quickly and fluently. (3, State the irrationality of the controversial view)However, they ignore the potential disadvantages to let children learn a foreign language in so a young age.(4, State the own opinion) For me, I am fully convinced that it is not a good idea to make children learn a foreign language as soon as they start school.

(2)主体段

① 布局
  • Topic Sentence (好):1句
  • Reasoning(为什么好):1 ~ 2句  *注意:当使用因果论证法的时候才要强调reasoning
  • Example(举例):3~4句
  • Closing(总结):1句
② 论证方法

1.例证法
例证法就是举例证明,例证法的关键在于如何选择和运用具有典型意义的一个或多个事例来论证某个论
点。可举的例子包括名人轶事、历史事件、新闻报道、自己身边的事情等。例如,在本书的范文中,有一篇是关于政府对基础教育资金投入问题的,为了给段落主题论点寻找支撑,作者以“希望工程”在中国的成功实施为例,试图证明基础教育的确更需要官方支援:The prestigious Hope Project initiated by… So far this project has financed millions of poor rural students. 可见,例证法使文章论据充分、有说服力。因此,平时应注重对各种典型实例的积累。

2.引证法
引证法即引用众所周知的科学道理和原理、富含人生哲理的谚语、成语和名人名言等,从而使文章更具科
学性和说服力。例如,在论述体育教给人们的道理时,作者引用了法国大思想家伏尔泰的“生命在于运动”理论:Above all, playing sports shows us an important truth that life is always in motion. This famous notion was first brought up by a French thinker named Voltaire. 从而加强了文章的感召力与可信度。

3.拆分论证法
在写作构思过程中,往往需要对论点进行合理拆分,从不同侧面展开论述,以达到论证逻辑的全面性。
最常用的方法是并列法,结构为:
总论点
分论点一
在A方面,在B方面,在C方面……
分论点二
分论点三
例如,在一篇有关旅伴的范文中,有如下段落:
Secondly, traveling expenditures may be cut down and much money can be saved. Regarding the accommodation on the journey, companions can share a double room in a hotel. Thus, each of them only has to pay half of the room price. The same is true with eating. It is a most popular choice for travelers to go dutch when having meals in restaurants. In this way, not only can they enjoy more dishes, but they can also spend less money than people who dine alone. In addition, on the trip, there might be the necessity to rent vehicles. Likewise, transportation costs can be shared equally between them as well.

4.因果论证法
因果论证是深入探讨事物间因果关系的论证方法,巧妙运用因果论证使文章逻辑连贯、论证透彻严密。例如:
No one wishes to fall behind. Thus, once a competition is started among the classmates, learning efficiency might be enhanced.

5.对比论证法
对比论证法是把两种事物加以对照比较后,推导出它们之间的差异点,映衬出结论。例如:
When facing a certain problem, people of the same age may have similar views. Conversely, older friends may contribute totally fresh ideas that win the heart and mind of the person needing support.

③ “万金由”素材

便、间、安、请、成、品、环、学

  • 便:便利

save time, not time-consuming, time is flexible, short distance, keep the schedule ahead

  • 健:健康

enough rest, balanced nutrition, body exercise/ sports, away from disease

  • 安:安全

food safety, body safety, property safety, stability/sustainability

  • 情:情感

affection, love, family, friendship, interpersonal relationship, social circle

  • 品:品格

virtue, personality, honest, perseverance, independence, team spirit, strong will

  • 环:环保

environment conservation,  global warming, excessive deforestation

  • 学:学习

compulsory courses, elective courses, online courses

④ 具体的素材
  • Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

Maslow used the terms “physiological,” “safety,” “belonging and love,” “esteem,” and “self-actualization” to describe the pattern through which human motivations generally move. The goal of Maslow’s Theory is to attain the fifth level or stage: self-actualization needs.

  • Malala Yousafzai, winner of Nobel Peace Prize

I tell my speech, not because it is unique, but because it is not. It is the story of many girls.

I had two options. One was to remain silent and wait to be killed. And the second was to speak up and then be killed.

  • Chinese celebrities on Internet company, eg: Jack Ma, Huateng Ma, etc.
⑤ 句式变通技巧
  • 用词地道准确,语言灵活多变,例如,可以用下列更精妙的副词代替very(非常):extremely, highly, amazingly, astonishingly,surprisingly, shockingly, overwhelmingly, strikingly,awfully, exceedingly, dramatically, strongly
  • 尽可能多变换句式,避免表达单一
    ◆ 可将正常语序转化为倒装句,例如:
    People seldom use pens and paper to write articles or
    letters now.→ Seldom do people use pens and paper to write
    articles or letters now.
    ◆ 也可将陈述句转化为疑问句,以加强语气,例如:
    It is necessary to carry out this plan.→ Isn’t it
    necessary to carry out this plan?
  • 黄金句型

(1)强调句。例如:
It is the harmful remarks or actions that prove fatal and dangerous.
(2)倒装句。例如:
Not only will it help one keep a good balance between work and rest, but it can also further benefit him both spiritually and physically.
Good medicine tastes bitter but cures diseases and saves life, so does honest advice.
Never can distance hinder the stable friendship between people who live apart.
(3)并列结构。例如:
Tremendous investments are being made to construct more roads, build more overpasses and develop new bus and subway lines.
(5)修辞问句。例如:
How could a person show pure friendliness to others while wearing a smiling mask?
Isn’t it a better idea to…?

(6)虚拟语气。例如:
But for his iron determination and golden spirit, he could never have become such a respected international icon.
(7)插入语。例如:
Nowadays, however, nuclear families are taking up the greatest ratio of social build-up.

Eg1. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? It is better to spend money on something that lasts for a long time, such as an expensive piece of jewelry or spend on something that provides a short-term pleasure such as a vocation.

总论点:我同意应该把钱花在短期快乐上。

  • TP1: 人的兴趣随时间变化,将钱花在短期快乐上更能带给人快乐。
  • TP2: 将钱花在短期快乐上利于避免用钱风险。
  • TP3: 将钱花在长期快乐上,会贬值。

With the development of the social economy, people have more income and a lager range of choices to buy. Some people chooses to spend money on something that lasts for a long time, they have their own reasons to justify their standpoint, for example, they believe by doing so their pleasure of buying can lasts longer as well. However, they ignore the bigger benefits that buying short-term pleasure can give and potential risks of buying something that lasts long. For me, I am fully convinced that it is a better choice to spend money on something that provides a short-term happiness.

To begin with, buying some small pleasures many times give us more happiness in total than buying one big pleasure that lasts long. The reason for that is our interests vary at different times, which means hardly can we know what we actually love in years from now. For example,  a young boy can either buy an expensive toy model car or cheap candies. He likes both items very much, but very likely his interests on this toy car will decay quickly after buying it. Worse still, if he want to buy some other toys later, he may not be able to afford it. However, if he chooses to buy cheap candies, he can still buy something he like in the future and gives him happiness again. Therefore, buying items that can gives us short-term pleasure is safest because our eager can be fulfilled every time, and this will in all give us bigger happiness.

In addition, spend money on short-time pleasure help reduce potential financial risks. Something that can give us pleasure for a long time tends to be more expensive, for example, a small diamond ring can cost thousands of dollars. And if you meet some emergencies in the future, it would be dangerous if you don’t have enough money on hand. Take my uncle San as an example, he bought his wife an extreme expensive wedding dress even though he does not earn so much. Unfortunately, his wife met with a car accident two months after wedding, and buying medicine and doing surgery cost a big amount of money. However, nobody wants to buy a wedding dress that have already been used, so my uncle had to ask for my parents for help. From my uncle’s example, it is not difficult to conclude that buying expensive items that give us long-time pleasure brings us potential financial risks.

Last but not least, spend money quickly after you earn is most economic. A television costs over 2000 dollars ago now only sells at 500 dollars, which tells us that it is not wise to save money to buy big pleasure. What’s worse, the time when you buy something is the time when they start lose value, which means from the perspective of finance, buying costly big pleasure is not a good idea.

Based on all the reasons listed above, I reiterate my point that people should spend money on something that gives us short-term pleasure, but not save money and wait for a long time to buy big pleasures.

 

二、练习

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? It is more important for government to spend money to improve Internet access than to improve public transportation. 

With the development of the modern society, people have more needs than before to have fast internet connection as well as convenient public transportation. However, the government has limited resources and whether should government invest more money on internet than in transportation? Some people hold the view firmly that spending more money on internet improvement brings more benefits, they have their own reasons to justify their standpoint, for example, they believe by doing that people can communicate with their family more conveniently. But they ignore the bigger benefits that improvement on public transportation will lead. For me, I am fully convinced that government should utilize limited resources in public transportation.

To begin with, the improvement of public transportation brings people a more convenient life. It is not seldom to hear the news that many mega cities come across traffic jams on rush hours every day, which costs much time of citizens to transport from home to companies. What’s worse, bad transportation makes people annoyed and unhappy, and this may lead to potential society risks. However, if government invest more money on public transportation and makes every corner in the city accessible easily, people will use public transportation more often and the traffic pressure will be released. Take Xi’an City as an example, before the new subway was constructed, my father took me to high school every day. We had to get up early to avoid rush hours. However, after we had a subway station before our home, I went to school myself by subway every day, without worrying getting stuck on the road and missing class. To conclude, the investment on public transportation is extreme valuable to bring a easier life for citizens.

In addition to that, the nation economy will also be improved if the government choose to spend more money on public transportation. As an old saying goes, “Build the road first if you want to be wealthy”, which demonstrates the significance of building a sound transportation system in a city. The Shenzhen City of China, who became one of the biggest cities in the world from a small village within only 30 years, tells us the importance to build public transportation system. The Mayer of Shenzhen planned over 15 major railways and a dedicated subway system inside the city, which was proved later an outstanding decision because many economy centers arose along the transportation lines. The economy is so important to a nation, therefore spending more money on public transportation is worthwhile.

Some people may give their own reasons to favor their standpoint that spending more money on internet is better. For example, they think internet can bring them a better way to communicate with their family. However, with the more convenient public transportation system, people can easily meet their family face to face, and isn’t it better than just saying with them through Skype? Some people also maintain that internet is so important because internet is the base of the information world. I agree with that, but I think the public transportation is more important because the transportation is related to a wider range of people, and more essential to a nation’s economy.

In a nutshell, for the reasons I listed above, I reiterate my perspective that government should spend more money on public transportation instead of internet.

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? All university students should be required to take history courses no matter what their field of study is.

History is one of the most attracting subjects and it has tremendous positive effects to both individuals and the society. For that reason, an increasingly number of people holds the opinion firmly that every student, no matter what they are major in, should take history courses. They have their own reasons to justify their standpoint, for example, they think studying history can make people wiser. However, they ignore the bigger disadvantages hidden behind. For me, I am fully convinced that students should not be required to take history courses.

To begin with, taking history courses gives negative effects on student’s major development and health. Students’ schedule have already been fulfilled with all kinds of courses, and taking extra history lessons add too much burden to them. What is worse, too much burden makes them have fewer time to exercise and rest, which finally lead to health issues. Take myself as an example, I am major in electronics engineering, I will take 6 hard-core courses every week, from basic mathematics to soft skill development workshop. It is always for me to stay up to midnight to finish the assignment, prepare for next class and incorporate the knowledge. I can’t imagine what will happen if we should take another history class! Therefore, make history courses compulsory is not rational and practical.

In addition to that, people over-estimate the importance of the history for people’s personal development. Unlike one hundred years ago, when people could only memorize the historical events and consume much time analyzing them, nowadays the internet and electronics devices enable us to search for history in anywhere and at anytime. It is not necessary for student to spend a huge amount of time in studying history, unless they are interested in them. People can search for anything on the internet if they need them. For instance, they can read some historical events about marketing and trading if they need to make a decision in their business, or they can look up for history of art if they are going to visit New York Art Museum. For this reason, it is not a wise idea to require students have history courses.

Some people may put forward some benefits that learning history can bring us. For example, they argue that reading history can improve one’s aesthetic level. Nonetheless, I think it would be a better way to have a visit to art museum because it is more efficient and effective. Besides, some people maintain that students should take history courses to enhance their love for country. I agree with this idea, but I think it is not worthwhile to develop student’s patriotism with a cost sacrificing students’ precious study time and exercising time.

In a nutshell, for the reasons I mentioned about, I reiterate my perspective that students should not be required to take history courses. But if the students are very interested in history, schools and universities are responsible to open history courses to them.

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The rules that societies today expect young people to follow and obey are too strict.

With the development of the society, more and more laws and regulations are issued, and these issues request a higher standard for young people. For this reason, some people hold the opinion firmly that these rules and too strict for young people, they have their own reasons to justify their standpoint, for example, they believe young people should not take so much responsibility because their age. However, they ignore the significance that these rules have, and underestimate the negative results when there are no such rules. For me, I am fully convinced that the rules today are not strict for young people.

To begin with, these strict rules are necessary for the normal operation of a modern society. Five hundred years ago, when people migrate from one place to another to make a living, there is no necessity for them to follow various rules. However, in today’s complex and interconnecting society, rules are essential to the social harmony. As parts of the society, young people should certainly obey these rules. For example, laws in many contries prohibit driving after drinking. It is hard to imagine what will happen if the laws permits young people to do that. Therefore, to see adults and young people separately is not appropriate.

In addition to that, it is beneficial for young people to obey these strict rules. Obeying rules is one of the most important things in adult’s world, and young people should learn to adapt it as early as possible. Take my older sister as an example, she was a self-centered person and did not know how to respect others. Because there is no strict rules in her high school, she became overbearing and usually frighted with other students. She brought such bad behavior to university, but what’s different is that there are systematic and detailed rules in her university. And she was warned to drop off the university when she was found to abuse others. From her experience, we can conclude that if there were strict rules in her high school, she could learn respect others earlier and won’t be punished in the university.

Some people may think it is not reasonable for such a young person to hold big responsibilities. In fact, young does not mean they are not mature. Almost all countries have rules to protect ancestors, but not young people. Young people should learn to take responsibility for themselves and do the right thing.

In a nutshell, for the reasons I mentioned above, I reiterate my perspective that rules in society today are not too strict for students.

三、好句积累

  • Different people may have varied preferences regarding the way to deal with money.
  • Some people feel it a better idea to spend money on long-term items, like luxurious jewelry, while others would rater invest in short term enjoyment, like a vocation. Owing to my own perspective on money, I stand by the latter.
  •   Within recent 30 years, our societies has witnessed and experienced radical changes in each and every expect of our life.

四、转换词

  • in other words
  • with regard to
  • as a consequence