非常有启发性的GRE长难句

从今天起,我决定开始更新与GRE相关的长难句。这些句子对我来说非常有启发,所以想要拿来和大家分享,同时也相当于自己的笔记。大部分句子来源于陈琦的《GRE长难句300练》,但翻译是基于我的个人理解给出的版本,解析也是我自己的感受。仅供大家的参考。如果大家觉得有用,请收藏本页至网页收藏夹,我会不断的更新,直至我觉得没有适合增加的“难句”为止。

***Latest updated on Nov 6th, 2017***

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1. Consequently, nothing seems good or normal that does not accord with the requirements of the free market.

– 翻译:因此,任何与自由市场要求不符的东西看起来都不是好的或不正常的。

– 解析:很有趣的一个句子,that引导的定语从句要修饰“物”,这里却修饰的是“nothing”。同时句子中的三重否定读起来对中文学习者很别扭。

2. Individual entrepreneurs do not necessarily rely on their kin because they cannot obtain financial backing from commerical resources.

– 翻译:个人创业者并非一定因为他们无法从商业资源获得经济支持而依赖他们的亲戚。

– 解析:because的用法比较有趣,仅仅用来解释”relay on their kin”, 而不像我们自己写的句子解释所有的前述句子。

3. More remarkable than the origin has been the persistence of sex segregation in twentieth-century industry.

– 翻译:20世纪性别歧视的存在现象比性别歧视的起源更为引人注目。

– 解析:很大的一个倒装句,因为主语过长所以被甩到后面。

4. Neverthless, researchers of the Pleistocene epoch have developed all sorts of more or less fanciful model schemes of how they would have arranged the Ice Age had they been in charge of events.

– 翻译:但是,更新世的研究者已经建立了各种各样或多或少有些想象力的,如果由他们自己决定事件就可以安排顺序的模型。

– 解析:前面已经有太多倒装和胜率,冷不丁出现的虚拟语气倒装会令人不知所措。这里的“had they been…”是虚拟语气倒装。

5. Federal efforts to aid minority businesses began in the 1960’s whe the Small Business Administration(SBA) began making federally guaranteed loans and government-sponsored management and technical assistance available to minority business enterprises.

– 翻译:联邦政府对少数企业的援助始于20世纪60年代,当SBA开始针对小型企业提供发行政府保证贷款、政府援助管理和技术支援。

– 解析:首先易犯的错误就是将“Federal”理解为名词,则有了“efforts to do”的错误理解,实际上“Federal” 为形容词,正确的搭配也应当为“effort doing”。除此之外,SBA 的谓语动词真的很长,必须要仔细的分析句式结构才能免于出错。

6. A low number of algal cells in the presence of a high number of grazers suggested, but did not prove, that the grazers had removed most of the algae.

– 翻译:在大量食草动物存在下,藻类细胞的量很少说明了,但无法证明食草动物吞食了大部分海藻。

– 解析:理解的关键是知道“in the presence of”是一个短语,意思是“在…存在时”。

7. Apparently most massive stars manage to lose sufficient material that their masses drop below the critical value of 1.4M before they exhaust their nuclear fuel.

– 翻译:显然大多巨大行星在他们用尽核燃料前减去了足够的质量到关键值1.4M以下。

– 解析: 句中的that出现的很突兀,其实是“so…that”省略了“so”。

8. Granted that war cost much less than it does today, that the Church rendered all sorts of educational and recreational services that were unobtainable elsewhere, and that government was far less demanding than is the modern state ——nevertheless, for medieval men and women, supporting commerical development required considerable economic sacrifice.

– 翻译:尽管中世纪的战争消耗的比现代战争小,尽管中世纪的教会提供了各种各样的无法在别处获得的教育和娱乐服务,尽管中世纪的政府比现在的政府的要求的更少;然而对于中世纪的人们,支持商业进步需要巨大的经济牺牲。

– 解析:读这句话的时候主要有两个难点:其一是开头的“Granted that”——这是一个固定用法,意思是“尽管”;其二是“far less demanding than is the modern state”,这里的“than is”显得特别怪异,其实是省略了“than (what) is”,这是一种较为不常见的省略,应格外注意。还有本段中多个并列的“that”其实都是“granted that”的省略。

9. That Louise Nevelson is believed by many critics to be the greatest twentieth-century sculptor is all the more remarkable because the greatest resistance to women artists has been, until recently, in the field of sculpture.

– 翻译:Louise Nevelson 被视为20世纪最伟大的雕刻家这一看法更加引人注目,因为雕塑领域一直到现在都是对于女性艺术家有着最大阻力的领域。

– 解析:正确解读这句话有两个难点:其一是“That……”这一个长主语应该理解为“观点”、“看法”,这样下文才翻译的通;第二点是“all the more”这一个固定用法,它的意思等同于“more”。由此可见一些固定搭配对于正确理解句意的重要性。

10. Only in the case of the February Revolution do we lack a useful description of participants that might characterize it the the light of what social history has taught us about the process of revolutionary mobilization.

– 翻译:只有在二月革命这个例子中我们缺乏对于参与者的详细描述,依照社会历史教育我们关于革命动员过程的内容,这些描述有可能描绘出二月革命的特征。

– 解析:我认为只是前十个句子里最为复杂的一句话了。理解的关键是认识到“that might characterize it”中的“it”指代的是前文中的“February Revolution”。那么为什么“a useful description of participants”可以“characterize”二月革命呢,是因为“what social history thas taught us”。理解的难点还有一个就是“in the light of”,这是一个固定搭配,其意思是“依照、鉴于、本着、由于”。

11. Although fiction assurely springs from political circumstances, its authors react to those circumstances in ways other than ideological, and talking about novels and stories primarily as instruments of ideology circumvents much of the fictional enterprise.

– 翻译:尽管小说确实创作于这样的政治环境中,但小说作者(在小说中)没有受政治的意识形态影响,而且将小说和故事主要用于意识形态的工具阻碍了小说的进步。

– 解析:“ideological”这里是意识形态的意思,主义“and”起了分隔两句话的作用。

12. Inheritors of some of the viewpoints of early twentieth-century Progressive historians such as Beard and Becker, these recent historians have put forward arguments that deserve evaluation.

– 翻译:这些近来的历史学家继承了Beard和Becker这样20世纪早期的进步主义历史学家们一些观点,提出了值得评价的一些观点。

– 解析:“Inheritors”是“recent historians” 的同位语,因此翻译的时候要注意整句话之间的关联.

13. The appreciation of traditional oral American Indian literature has been limited, hampered by poor translations and by the difficulty, even in the rare culturally sensitive and aesthetically satisfying translation, of completely conveying the original’s verse structure, tone and syntax.

– 翻译:糟糕的翻译,和即使在一些对文化敏感并且满足审美需求的翻译上传达韵律结构、语气和语法的困难,使传统美洲印第安人文学的欣赏受到了限制。

– 解析:注意“hampered by”修饰“the appreciation”, “of completely conveying …”修饰前面的”difficulty”.

14. For instance, early textile-mill entrepreneurs, in justifying women’s enployment in wage labor, made much of the assumption that women were by nature skillful at detailed tasks and patient in carrying out repetitive chores; the mill owners thus improved into the new industrial order hoary stereotypes associated with the homemaking activities they presumed to have been the purview of women.

– 翻译:比如,早期纺织厂主在说明他们在雇佣妇女的理由时,假设女人天生擅长细致工作、在做重复性工作时更有耐心。这些纺织厂主就将从事家务劳动是妇女的天职这样的旧观点引入了新的工业秩序中。

– 解析:理解的难点主要是句子的后半部分,用了一个介词结构倒装。正确的语序是“make…stereotype”。第二点就是对英文中的分号作用的认识,英文中分号一般是连接两个相关的、但结构相互独立的句子,通常情况下理解为句号也没有什么大的问题。

15. New techniques for determining the molecular sequence of the RNA of organisms have produced evolutionary information about the degree to which organisms are related, the time since they diverged from a common ancestor, and the reconstruction of ancestral versions of genes.

– 翻译:用于确定生物体RNA分子序列的新技术已经产生了关于生物体金华的信息,这些信息关于生物体相关的程度、关于他们自一个共同祖先分化的时间,一级关于重建祖先基因组成的。

– 解析:这句话的难点在于后面的三个并列结构,后两个并列结构都省略了副词“about”。

16. With the conclusion of a burst of activity, the lactic acid level is high in the body fluids, leaving the large anmianl vulnerable to attack until the acid is reconverted, via oxidative metabolism, by the liver into glucose, which is then sent(in part) back to the muscles for glycogen re-synthesis.

– 翻译:剧烈运动后,大型动物体液中的乳酸水平非常高,使得它们在乳酸水平恢复前易于遭到攻击。恢复过程是通过肝脏有氧新陈代谢将乳酸转化为葡萄糖,葡萄糖再被送回肌肉合成糖原。

– 解析:首先要知道“a burst of activity”是剧烈运动的意思。这句话有非常多的连接词和修饰语,像”leaving…”、“via”、“by”、“which”,理解的关键是认清主语。

17. Its subject (to use Maynard Mack’s categories) is “life-as-spectacle”, for readers, diverted by its various incidents, observe its hero Odysseus primarily from without; the tragic *Iliad*, however, presents “life-as-experience”: readers are asked to identify with the mind of Achilles, whose motivations render him a not particularly likable hero.

– 翻译:使用Maynard Mack的分类法的话,《奥德赛》的主题就是“生命是一段奇特的旅程”,因为读者会以旁观者的心态来看待主人公Odysseus的一生,再次过程中,作者很享受Odysseus如何应对各种各样的意外事件。但是,悲剧《伊利亚特》的主题却是“生命是由现实经历构成的”,作品要求读者能体会到Achilles的心境,而Achilles的动机却是他不是特别具有吸引力。

– 解析:出于文化差异的原因,初读是一个相当难懂的句子,但看了翻译后感觉也并不是很难。有趣的是“from without”这样稍显奇异的用法,应该理解为“从旁观者的角度”。其他的按照翻译并不难理解。

18. As she put it in *The Common Reader*,”it is safe to say that not a single law has been framed or one stone set upon another because of anything Chaucer said or wrote; and yet, as we read him, we are absorbing morality at every pore”.

– 翻译:正如他在《普通读者》里说的那样,Chaucer说的或写的并不能形成一部法律,也不能让石块逐个累加起来;但是当我们阅读他的作品的时候,我们的每一个毛孔中都能感受到道德的气息。

– 解析:这句话理解的难点主要在于“one stone set upon another”。其实“one stone”前面省略了“has been”,让我们读起来怪怪的,添上之后就顺畅多了。文艺的翻译是“平地起高楼”。可见阅读英文长句也需要丰富的想象。

19. Anthropologists and others are on much firmer ground when they attempt to deccribe the cultural norms for a small homogeneous tribe or village than when they undertake the formidable task of discovering the norms that exist in a complex modern nation-state composed of many disparate groups.

– 翻译:相比展开发现一个有许多分立组分构成的复杂现代系统的准则的大任务,当人类学家和其他一些人尝试描述一个小的同类部落或乡村时,他们能够基于更加坚实的基础。

– 解析:这句话主要的结构是“… are on ground when … than when …”,后半句话when引导的从句非常的长,一定要仔细认清句式结构。

20. Perhaps the facts many of these first studies considered only algae of a size that could be collected in a net( net phytoplankton), a practice that overlooked the smaller phytoplankton( nannoplankton) that we now know grazers are most likely to feed, led to a de-emphasis of the role of grazers in subsequent research.

– 翻译:也许最初仅仅认为同一种大小的,可以被网捕捞的藻类(网采浮游生物)研究,忽略了更小的浮游生物(超微浮游生物),然而现在我们知道食草动物主要依靠超微浮游生物为生。因此,这个事实导致了在后续研究中对于食草动物的忽视。

– 解析:“consider only algae of a size”比较难理解,其意思应为“only consider algae with a same size”.

21. This is so even though armed forces operate in an ethos of institutional change toward oriented toward occupational equality and under the federal sanction of equal pay for equal work.

– 翻译:即使武装力量是在一种趋向职业平等的制度变革的风气中运行,而且即使武装力量是在联邦政府同意同共筹的情况下运行,情况依然如此。

– 解析:注意正确的短句应为“This is so / even …”.

22. Well established among segments of the middle and upper classes by the mid-1800’s, this new view of childhood spread throughout society in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries as reformers introduced child-labor regulations and compulsory education laws predicated in part on the assumption that a child’s emotional value made child labor taboo.

– 翻译:这种关于童年的新观点在19世纪中期已经牢牢地被中上层阶级确立,并与19世纪晚期和20世纪早期在全社会中传播开来,当时改革者引进童工管理法和义务教育法,这两部法律部分基于这个假设,及孩子的情感价值是童工成为禁忌。

– 解析:本句开头“Well established…”引导了一个分词结构倒装的无头句,其主语一般在逗号后面找,本句中的主语是“this new view of …”. 句中的“as”应理解为“随着”,句中的“predicated in”应当理解为“基于”。这句话真的是依据非常复杂的句子,要仔细的分析句式结构。

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***To be continued…***