Issue Theory 参考新东方《GRE高分写作指导》
Claim: We can usually learn much more from people whose views we share than from those whose views contradict our own.
Reason: Disagreement can cause stress and inhibit learning.
Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the claim and the reason on which that claim is based.
Obtaining contradiction and disagreements from others will certainly lead to stress and dissatisfaction, however, I do not think it is reasonable to hastily conclude that we can not learn more from our opponents. Everything has two aspects, whether it becomes bad or good depends on how we deal with it. And I am fully confirmed that if someone can treat these stresses well, we can even learn more from those whose views contradict our own.指出自己的观点，即不全盘肯定、亦不全盘否定。
Admittedly, sometimes different opinions from others impede us learning more, especially when we have a negative attitude to these contradictions. It is important for someone to always keep positive mind to stay efficient in studying, therefore, it can be a disaster if someone is stuck in stress and contradiction from different views from others. Dongyang, a famous young poet in ancient China, stopped composing poems when he was old. The reason is that he was told he was not talented in literature, and could never be an excellent poet. Before that, though he was not outstanding, he was confident in himself and believed that he could succeed with his diligent work. However, after hearing that, he felt depressed and stressful – what could he do if he could not make living by writing poems? Therefore, he chose to become an ordinary merchant and no longer wanted to compose poems.What will happen if he stick to composing poems, will he become an excellent poet? These question could no longer be answered, because Dongyang gave up, and it was because negative views from others. It is not difficult for us to conclude from this example that the contradicted view from others can eliminate one’s confidence, and make one inhibit learning. 指出Disagreement的弊端。
However, if we can treat these stresses in a right way – for example, becoming more diligent and hard-working to make bigger achievements – we can benefit from these opposite views. One of the most famous inventors in the world, Edison, failed hundreds of times when he was trying to find a best item to use in a light bulbs. No one around him thought he would succeed and they all suggest him to give up. However, Edison was convinced that what he was doing is worthwhile – failure is mother of success – and kept trying in order to prove his idea. Finally, in his 1000st experiment, he succeeded. From Edison’s example, we know that contradictory standpoints from others are not always barriers. If someone can see these disagreements as further motivation, and become more diligent, they can benefit from these opposite opinions as well.指出Disagreement的优势。
Besides, sometimes, the contradictory view from others is a necessity for the advancement of person, community or even country. In person level, you should learn from others’ suggestions to correct your misbehavior and faults. In community level, a community have to listen to inhabitants’ feedback and make continuous improvement. In country level, despite the fact that they have some disagreement in some issues, they have to make use of each other and obtain mutual benefits.指出Disagreement的必要性。
In a nutshell, I think whether someone can learn more from people who have similar or different ideas much depends on their attitude. Can someone transfer resistance into motivation? If he can, then he will benefit even more.总述全文。
A nation should require all its students to study the same national curriculum until they enter college rather than allow schools in different parts of the nation to determine which academic courses to offer.
Do all students learn same national curriculum better than learn courses that are determined by their schools? The statement thinks so. However, despite the fact that learning same curriculum has some benefits, such as fairness and efficiency, it also has various disadvantages. Personally speaking, I hold the view that it is better to have different curriculums for different schools.
Admittedly, learning same curriculum has some advantages. The biggest benefit is fairness. It is important to be as fair as possible for college entrance procedure because it related tightly to each student’s future. And learning same curriculum and have same test to determine whether one can be admitted is an good way to keep fair. What’s more, a nationwide curriculum makes education more convenient and efficient. Because of a standard teaching curriculum, teachers from different parts of the country can share their teaching materials and experiences. Also, a student can easily transfer from one school to another without barriers. All of this makes a better teaching and learning environment.
However, the standard nationwide curriculum also causes disadvantages. The question that comes first is that such teaching method is not beneficial to students’ diverse development. The fast-changing and diverse contemporary world needs people with different specialties and personalities, but not people with a standard skill. That is to say, we should more concentrate to develop students’ strength than a so-called standard. It is common that students from different areas tend to have different characters and strengths. Thus, the same nationwide curriculum does not suitable for this ambition.
Most importantly, in some conditions, it is a must to have different curriculums. For example, you can never teach swim in a city that is -40 degrees in the winter, and it is impossible to make students in a hot areas to play iceball. Besides, because of different family conditions, some students can not afford the learning expenses that seems only a little to a student from rich families. If the government set the same nationwide curriculum regardless of that, many students are in danger to drop off for economic reasons.
In whole, I do not deny the benefits that a nationwide curriculum brings, but it brings more disadvantages and sometimes even impossible to do that. Therefore, I think it is better for schools to choose the curriculum that best suits themselves and their students.
Argument Theory 参考新东方《GRE高分写作指导》
- Adv:disadv 没有全面衡量正负得失
- C.S. changing scope 草率推广
- F.A. false analogy 错误类比
- F.D. false dilemma 极端选择
- I.C. incomplete comparison 选择性比较/不完整比较
- I.E. insufficient evidence 论据不充分
- I.I. incomplete information 信息不完整
- I.T. incomplete thought 考虑问题不全面
- N.C.R. non-causal relationship 无因果
- P->F 过去推将来
- U.A. unwarranted assumption 无端假设
- U.C unrelated concepts 无关概念
- V.D. vague data 模糊数据
- 如果两段有递进式联系：(第一段)In the first place… (第二段)Granted that…
- First, the author hastily assumes A
- Based on A, the author further implies B. However B… / Granted that assumption A could be substantiated, we cannot ensure that B is justified.
- Moreover, the author’s assumption C is open to doubt.
The following appeared in a newsletter distributed at a recent political rally:
“Over the past year, the Consolidated Copper Company (CCC) has purchased over one million square miles of land in the tropical nation of West Fredonia. Mining copper on this land will inevitably result in pollution and environmental disaster, since West Fredonia is home to several endangered animal species. But such disaster can be prevented if consumers simply refuse to purchase products that are made with CCC’s copper until the company abandons its mining plans.”
Write based on what assumption should be satisfied to justify the recommendation, and indicate to which extend do you agree with the opinion of the recommendation.
In order to prevent potential environmental disasters bring by the copper mining activities, the author of the letter suggests consumers avoid buying CCC’s copper-made produce. However, without some warranted assumptions, this behaviour may not be effective.
In the letter, the author points out that it is the CCC’s mining activities that leads to fatal pollution and the risks to endangered animal species. Before accepting this perspective, we have to prove the assumption that CCC’s mining activity is the only, or at least the main cause to the serious environmental damage. In fact, many factors besides mining are possible criminals to environmental damages, for example, the emission of polluted industrial water and gases, the deforestation for economic profits, the hunting activities, etc. If the environmental issue is result from comprehensive factors, the authors suggestion on rejecting products that are made by CCC’s copper is useless.
Granted that CCC’s mining activities is the main factor to the environmental damage, the author’s advice can not be effective as well. In the letter, the author says the rejection to buying products that are made of CCC’s coppers can be a useful way to make CCC to abandon its mining plans. While, there is another assumption needed to be clarify – all copper from CCC is made into products that are sold to consumers. As it is known to all, it is rare for a company to sell their product only in one form. In order to reduce commercial risks and enhance competence, companies tend have various kinds of products. For example, the CCC may provide copper to car manufacturer or electronics device companies, that is to say, even all consumers refuse to buy CCC’s products, CCC will continue to mine copper because they can make profit in other ways.
Finally, given what is suggested by the author can be effective to make CCC abandon copper mining, and reduce environment damage, without the assumption that this is the best way to solve the problem, we should still be skeptical to this suggestion. In complex society situations, we should judge both one thing’s feasibility and its potential effects. For instance, what will happen if CCC is closed because it abandons copper mining? Can its employees find a second job? How to make a better use of copper resources? Will this influence local economy? All these potential drawbacks should be considered.
In a nutshell, without clarifying the assumptions listed above, we can not ensure the author’s suggestion is feasible and reasonable.