GRE写作要点总结

Issue Theory 参考新东方《GRE高分写作指导》

如何备考

  1. 将题目按题材/核心思想/论证结构分类
  2. 针对每个领域/每类主题的题目发挥发散性思维,搜集写作论证素材
  3. 结合每道题的特点和写作要求构造文章结构

题目分类

  1. 按领域分:自然/教育/科技社会/政治/认知
  2. 按核心思想分:眼前问题与长远问题的关系(A),个体与整体的关系(B),科技与人性的关系(C),理性与感性的关系(D),学科之间的交叉影响(E),竞争与合作的关系(F),理想与现实的关系(G),传统与创新的关系(H)
  3. 按正文段落之间逻辑分:对比型(comprasion),问题解决型(solution),推理型(reasoning),观点型(claim)

积累素材与论证思路时的五个层面

  1. D:定义
  2. C:分类
  3. D:对领域的影响
    1. C:题目观点成立的前提
    2. P:题目观点在不同时期的体现
  4. R:提出观点的理由
    1. I:采纳题目的重要性
    2. B:题目观点对那些方面会产生好处
    3. N:出于哪些不得已之处必须采用题目中行为
  5. E:接纳观点的后果

构建文章结构

按照不同的题目类型分别考虑:对比型/问题解决型/推理型/观点型

  1. 对比型:
    1. 按DCDRE素材展开;
    2. 说两种观点的优/劣再综合判断;
    3. 有没有对比的必要性/可否折中
  2. 问题解决型:
    1. 正面
      • R:I,B,N
      • 合理性
    2. 反面
      • 题目的局限性或问题
      • 题目的可行性
      • 其他的解决方案
  3. 推理型:
    1. 正面
      • 论据的合理性
      • 推理过程的合理性
      • 观点的合理性
    2. 反面
      • 论据的不合理性
      • 推理过程的不合理型
      • 题目观点的合理性
  4. 观点型:
    1. 正面
      • R:B,N
      • 观点的合理性
    2. 反面:
      • 观点的不合理性
      • 观点不合理性引发的后果

Issue 实战

将以上理论有个大概了解,接下来我介绍一种非常实用的模板。是我在练习Issue写作的时候不断积累出来的,适用于绝大部分GRE的Issue题型。

思路:考虑条件/定义/分类,某些条件/定义/分类下才成立,另一些条件下不成立;或者某些条件下合理,某些条件下不合理;某些方案可行,某些方案不可行;某些结果可以接受,某些结果不可以接受等等。这其实是一个逻辑发散的过程。对于Issue题型,从各个角度、各个观点思考问题是极为必要的!大体来说就是从正反两方面考虑,一般来说我们都能从正反两方面找到一些论据,为了考试方便,我们可以选择论据多的一方作为自己的主要观点。

段落结构:开头(说明观点,条件性同意)+让步(说反方优点)+结合反方缺点讨论正方优点(从前因后果分析)+说正方观点的必要性+结尾(总结观点)。正文段落的排布也反映出了我们的批判性思考过程,即不全盘肯定、亦不全返否定,只在特定情况下才认可。实践经验告诉我,这样的段落排布方法,即有利于流畅的写作(即我们不会苦恼于想不出来足够的论据)、也有利于反映我们的逻辑水平(即批判性的写作方式)。

Tips:一定要注重段落之间的联系!

下面我用几个例子体现我的这套模板,读者可以自己感受学习。


Claim: We can usually learn much more from people whose views we share than from those whose views contradict our own.

Reason: Disagreement can cause stress and inhibit learning.

Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the claim and the reason on which that claim is based.

Obtaining contradiction and disagreements from others will certainly lead to stress and dissatisfaction, however, I do not think it is reasonable to hastily conclude that we can not learn more from our opponents. Everything has two aspects, whether it becomes bad or good depends on how we deal with it. And I am fully confirmed that if someone can treat these stresses well, we can even learn more from those whose views contradict our own.指出自己的观点,即不全盘肯定、亦不全盘否定。

Admittedly, sometimes different opinions from others impede us learning more, especially when we have a negative attitude to these contradictions. It is important for someone to always keep positive mind to stay efficient in studying, therefore, it can be a disaster if someone is stuck in stress and contradiction from different views from others. Dongyang, a famous young poet in ancient China, stopped composing poems when he was old. The reason is that he was told he was not talented in literature, and could never be an excellent poet. Before that, though he was not outstanding, he was confident in himself and believed that he could succeed with his diligent work. However, after hearing that, he felt depressed and stressful – what could he do if he could not make living by writing poems? Therefore, he chose to become an ordinary merchant and no longer wanted to compose poems.What will happen if he stick to composing poems, will he become an excellent poet? These question could no longer be answered, because Dongyang gave up, and it was because negative views from others. It is not difficult for us to conclude from this example that the contradicted view from others can eliminate one’s confidence, and make one inhibit learning. 指出Disagreement的弊端。

However, if we can treat these stresses in a right way – for example, becoming more diligent and hard-working to make bigger achievements – we can benefit from these opposite views. One of the most famous inventors in the world, Edison, failed hundreds of times when he was trying to find a best item to use in a light bulbs. No one around him thought he would succeed and they all suggest him to give up. However, Edison was convinced that what he was doing is worthwhile – failure is mother of success – and kept trying in order to prove his idea. Finally, in his 1000st experiment, he succeeded. From Edison’s example, we know that contradictory standpoints from others are not always barriers. If someone can see these disagreements as further motivation, and become more diligent, they can benefit from these opposite opinions as well.指出Disagreement的优势。

Besides, sometimes, the contradictory view from others is a necessity for the advancement of person, community or even country. In person level, you should learn from others’ suggestions to correct your misbehavior and faults. In community level, a community have to listen to inhabitants’ feedback and make continuous improvement. In country level, despite the fact that they have some disagreement in some issues, they have to make use of each other and obtain mutual benefits.指出Disagreement的必要性。

In a nutshell, I think whether someone can learn more from people who have similar or different ideas much depends on their attitude. Can someone transfer resistance into motivation? If he can, then he will benefit even more.总述全文。


A nation should require all its students to study the same national curriculum until they enter college rather than allow schools in different parts of the nation to determine which academic courses to offer.

Do all students learn same national curriculum better than learn courses that are determined by their schools? The statement thinks so. However, despite the fact that learning same curriculum has some benefits, such as fairness and efficiency, it also has various disadvantages. Personally speaking, I hold the view that it is better to have different curriculums for different schools.

Admittedly, learning same curriculum has some advantages. The biggest benefit is fairness. It is important to be as fair as possible for college entrance procedure because it related tightly to each student’s future. And learning same curriculum and have same test to determine whether one can be admitted is an good way to keep fair. What’s more, a nationwide curriculum makes education more convenient and efficient. Because of a standard teaching curriculum, teachers from different parts of the country can share their teaching materials and experiences. Also, a student can easily transfer from one school to another without barriers. All of this makes a better teaching and learning environment.

However, the standard nationwide curriculum also causes disadvantages. The question that comes first is that such teaching method is not beneficial to students’ diverse development. The fast-changing and diverse contemporary world needs people with different specialties and personalities, but not people with a standard skill. That is to say, we should more concentrate to develop students’ strength than a so-called standard. It is common that students from different areas tend to have different characters and strengths. Thus, the same nationwide curriculum does not suitable for this ambition.

Most importantly, in some conditions, it is a must to have different curriculums. For example, you can never teach swim in a city that is -40 degrees in the winter, and it is impossible to make students in a hot areas to play iceball. Besides, because of different family conditions, some students can not afford the learning expenses that seems only a little to a student from rich families. If the government set the same nationwide curriculum regardless of that, many students are in danger to drop off for economic reasons.

In whole, I do not deny the benefits that a nationwide curriculum brings, but it brings more disadvantages and sometimes even impossible to do that. Therefore, I think it is better for schools to choose the curriculum that best suits themselves and their students.


 

Argument Theory 参考新东方《GRE高分写作指导》

题干中的逻辑成分

  1. 背景信息
  2. 一般论据
  3. 假设
  4. 结论

论据中的问题

  1. 论据中的问题:
    1. 调查类(是否可靠?):选择性样本,样本数量不足,机构是否中立,时效性,回答者是否真实反映
    2. 数据类(是否准确?):总量与相对量
  2. 推理中的问题:
    1. 错误类比:是否具有可比性/相似性?
    2. 不完整比较:只比较了某些方面,不公正
    3. 草率推广:
      • 无关概念:A与B并无逻辑关联,如看病人数少不代表该病发病率低
      • 以偏概全:从个案推广到整体,从整体推广到个体
      • 从过去推未来:老办法/老经验是否继续适用
    4. 没有全面衡量正负得失:只看正面,未看负面
    5. 极端选择:认为事情只有两面,非此即彼,忽略中间选择
  3. 结论中的问题:
    1. 对策的充分性与必要性:是否足够解决问题,有无更好的方案
    2. 结论的可行性:现实中是否可以操作
  4. 常见逻辑错误:
    1. Adv:disadv 没有全面衡量正负得失
    2. C.S. changing scope 草率推广
    3. F.A. false analogy 错误类比
    4. F.D. false dilemma 极端选择
    5. I.C. incomplete comparison 选择性比较/不完整比较
    6. I.E. insufficient evidence 论据不充分
    7. I.I. incomplete information 信息不完整
    8. I.T. incomplete thought 考虑问题不全面
    9. N.C.R. non-causal relationship 无因果
    10. P->F 过去推将来
    11. U.A. unwarranted assumption 无端假设
    12. U.C unrelated concepts 无关概念
    13. V.D. vague data 模糊数据

题干中的推理方法

  1. 并列式推理:险些主要的/严重的,后写次要的/枝节性的
  2. 递进式推理:按推理过程写

写作时一定要注意段落间的联系

写作的时候务必强调段落间的联系!!

  • 如果两段有递进式联系:(第一段)In the first place… (第二段)Granted that…
  • 一个可供使用的模板
    • First, the author hastily assumes A
    • Based on A, the author further implies B. However B… / Granted that assumption A could be substantiated, we cannot ensure that B is justified.
    • Moreover, the author’s assumption C is open to doubt.

不同的写作要求

写作时一定要对写作要求要有呼应!!

七种不同的写作要求,实质上只有四种

  • Assumption
  • Question
  • Evidence
  • Explanation

前三种主要是找到题目的assumption就可以解答

Argument 实战

与Issue一样,针对Arugment我也总结出了一套个人模板。

一个模板

 

  • 开头段:简要概括文章内容+指出自己观点:除非回答以下假设/提供如下证据/回答以下问题/给出另一种解释,否则结论并不可信
  • 主体段
    • 先简要概括作者的观点1
    • 指出问题之所在
    • 解释为什么这一点会有问题
  • 结尾段:总结三个问题,重申自己的观点

The following appeared in a newsletter distributed at a recent political rally:

“Over the past year, the Consolidated Copper Company (CCC) has purchased over one million square miles of land in the tropical nation of West Fredonia. Mining copper on this land will inevitably result in pollution and environmental disaster, since West Fredonia is home to several endangered animal species. But such disaster can be prevented if consumers simply refuse to purchase products that are made with CCC’s copper until the company abandons its mining plans.”

Write based on what assumption should be satisfied to justify the recommendation, and indicate to which extend do you agree with the opinion of the recommendation.

In order to prevent potential environmental disasters bring by the copper mining activities, the author of the letter suggests consumers avoid buying CCC’s copper-made produce. However, without some warranted assumptions, this behaviour may not be effective.

In the letter, the author points out that it is the CCC’s mining activities that leads to fatal pollution and the risks to endangered animal species. Before accepting this perspective, we have to prove the assumption that CCC’s mining activity is the only, or at least the main cause to the serious environmental damage. In fact, many factors besides mining are possible criminals to environmental damages, for example, the emission of polluted industrial water and gases, the deforestation for economic profits, the hunting activities, etc. If the environmental issue is result from comprehensive factors, the authors suggestion on rejecting products that are made by CCC’s copper is useless.

Granted that CCC’s mining activities is the main factor to the environmental damage, the author’s advice can not be effective as well. In the letter, the author says the rejection to buying products that are made of CCC’s coppers can be a useful way to make CCC to abandon its mining plans. While, there is another assumption needed to be clarify – all copper from CCC is made into products that are sold to consumers. As it is known to all, it is rare for a company to sell their product only in one form. In order to reduce commercial risks and enhance competence, companies tend have various kinds of products. For example, the CCC may provide copper to car manufacturer or electronics device companies, that is to say, even all consumers refuse to buy CCC’s products, CCC will continue to mine copper because they can make profit in other ways.

Finally, given what is suggested by the author can be effective to make CCC abandon copper mining, and reduce environment damage, without the assumption that this is the best way to solve the problem, we should still be skeptical to this suggestion. In complex society situations, we should judge both one thing’s feasibility and its potential effects. For instance, what will happen if CCC is closed because it abandons copper mining? Can its employees find a second job? How to make a better use of copper resources? Will this influence local economy? All these potential drawbacks should be considered.

In a nutshell, without clarifying the assumptions listed above, we can not ensure the author’s suggestion is feasible and reasonable.